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Planungsprozess

Schritt für Schritt eine Lichtplanung entwickeln

Project analysis

Project analysis

Introduction

The basis for every lighting design concept is an analysis of the project; the tasks the lighting is expected to fulfil, the conditions and special features. A quantitative design concept can to a large extent follow the standards laid down for a specific task. Standards dictate the illuminance level, the degree of glare limitation, the luminous colour and colour rendering. When it comes to qualitative planning, it is necessary to gain as much information as possible about the environment to be illuminated, how it is used, who will use it and the style of the architecture.

Project analysis

Utilisation of space

A central aspect of project analysis is the question of how the spaces that are to be illuminated are used; it is important to establish what activity or activities take place in the environment, how often and how important they are. This comprehensive analysis of the task gives rise to a series of individual visual tasks, the characteristics of which must in turn also be analysed. Two criteria relating to a visual task are the size and contrast of the details that have to be recorded or handled; there then follows the question of whether colour or surface structure of the visual task are significant, whether movement and spatial arrangement have to be recognized or whether reflected glare is likely to be a problem. The position of the visual task within the space and the predominant direction of view may also become central issues.

Project analysis

Psychological requirements

The psychological requirements include perception of the wider surroundings to establish the time of day, the weather and to facilitate spatial orientation. In large buildings frequented by different users, the need for visual guidance can become a important issue. An orderly and clearly structured environment contributes to the general feeling of wellbeing. Differentiated lighting can provide spatial delineation for areas with separate functions. Where there are conversational zones within larger areas, it may make sense to create private areas by using suitable lighting.

Project analysis

Architecture and ambience

From the point of view of architecture and ambience, a building or space should be made visible, its characteristics accentuated and its ambience underlined. This requires detailed information on the architecture and on the overall architectural concept complete with the intended indoor and outdoor effect by day and night, the use of daylight and the permissible energy consumption. This also includes information on materials, reflectance and the colour scheme. In Architectural lighting it’s not primarily about the lighting which emphasises the building structures and characteristic features for a particular perspective, but rather how to create the required aesthetic effect in a space. The question of the building shape, of spatial shape, modules and rhythmical patterns, which can be identified and expressed by light and luminaires - constitutes the central issue.

Lighting concept

Lighting concept

Lighting concepts list the properties that lighting should possess. They give no exact information about the choice of lamps or luminaires or about their arrangement. Project analysis provides lighting quality guidelines giving information about the individual forms of lighting. These relate to the quantity and various quality features of light, and also gives the degree of spatial and temporal differentiation. A practical design concept requires consultation with the other trades involved. It must meet the specifications of the relevant standards and take both investment costs and running costs into consideration. The challenge of a qualitative lighting design is to develop a design concept that combines the technical and aesthetic requirements of complex guidelines. A concept that delivers the required performance with a commensurate level of technical expertise and the highest level of artistic clarity will produce the most convincing solution.

Design

Design

In the design phase, decisions are made regarding the lamps and luminaires to be used, the arrangement and installation of the luminaires. This also allows a reliable calculation of illuminance and costs. No strict process can be set out, nor even one describing generally routine design stages.
The decision regarding light colour of a luminaire can be made at the beginning of a project or left until an advanced planning stage. Luminaire arrangement can be determined by the choice of a certain luminaire or could be the criteria for luminaire selection.
Lighting design should be seen as a cyclical process in which developed solutions are repeatedly compared to the stated requirements.

Installation

Installation

A wide range of luminaire types - e. g. spotlights and light structures - are exclusively designed to be installed as additive elements. They may be mounted on track or lighting structures, suspended from the ceiling (pendant luminaires) or surface mounted onto the wall or ceiling. The range of downlights and louvered luminaires available is so vast and their designs differ substantially, which means that numerous modes of installation are required. In the case of wall or floor mounting the luminaires may be surface-mounted or recessed into the fabric of the building. Ceiling mounting allows a variety of possibilities: recessed mounting, surfaced mounting or pendant mounting. The Installation Instructions for the luminaires explain the installation and maintenance of the luminaires in detail.

Maintenance

Maintenance

The maintenance of LED lighting systems is usually limited to cleaning the outside of the luminaire, particularly the covers, lenses or reflectors. Any soiling of these reduces the light output ratio, thereby decreasing the required level of brightness and the light effect.
Though not generally required, the LED module should only be replaced by the factory.
The task of the lighting designer is to draw up a maintenance plan that meets the requirements of the given situation and includes the necessary informative literature.